Wednesday, August 26, 2009

James McParlan Alias James McKenna

Most people in the coal region know the Mollie Maguire story, and one of the leading personalities was the infamous Pinkerton Detective James McParlan,who was known to the Mollies as James McKenna. Whether you hate him, or think what he did was correct, Mr.McParlan was an intricate part of Schuylkill county history. Following is a little travel log of McParlan after he arrived in Schuylkill County at Port Clinton.
I don't want to go into his history, you can do that for yourself, here is his travel tour.

In the month of October, 1873, he arrived in Philadelphia, and reported himself to Benjamin Franklin, the superintendent of the Agency there, as ready for action. A general plan was agreed upon, and modes of communication by cipher and otherwise were established. Frequent reports were required,—daily, or even oftener when necessary or practicable. It was not in view at this time that McParlan should himself ever become a witness; the intention was to discover, if possible, the criminals who infested the coal regions, to learn of their inside workings, to give notice of intended outrages, so that when possible they might be prevented, and when this could not be done, to point out the offenders and secretly furnish information and evidence for their conviction.

The character of the outrages committed and the manner of their commission had led to a belief in the existence of a powerful organization located in the very heart of the mining operations. It was fully appreciated that every move should be made cautiously; it was fully understood that by one single error the work of months might be rendered of no avail, and that by one false step future operations would be made still more dangerous, if not impossible. Before entering on the work, a knowledge of the various localities and differing characteristics of the people, to be obtained through actual observation, was deemed requisite. This was considered advisable for a number of reasons: it would render the detective better able to enter into and understand ordinary subjects of conversation, and would give him a clearer idea of the field he had to work in. The details of his action and future movements were left as a matter either of discretion or of after-consideration.

Under such general instructions, McParlan entered upon the scene of action. In the month of October, 1873, he took the cars in Philadelphia, with Port Clinton—a small town situated on the dividing line between the counties of Schuylkill and Berks—as his destination. Here he for the first time assumed the name of James McKENNA, a name by which he was known during the whole period of his residence in Schuylkill County, up to March, 1876.

Port Clinton, a small but thriving village, a railroad junction, with some manufacturing industries, frequented by railroad hands, but with the Pennsylvania German element predominating among its residents, was soon understood, and, to the detective, uninteresting. Remaining there but one day, he passed a few miles up the railroad to Auburn. Here he found the Pennsylvania Dutch in full force. The town was small, and the inhabitants evidently not bloodthirsty; but, according to his own account, here it was that his main duties as an officer were appealed to. He showed obedience to orders in stopping there, but his discretion told him to leave within a few hours. A ride of

about fifteen miles on the Schuylkill and Susquehanna branch of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, through a beautiful farming country, and he was rewarded by a sight of the pretty little town of Pinegrove. Not being interested in the subject of agriculture nor in search of a pleasant place of residence, the same day found him on the return trip to Auburn, and from there he went still farther up the railroad to Schuylkill Haven.

Schuylkill Haven, although outside of the coal region, is only four miles from Pottsville, is at the junction of the Mine Hill branch with the main line of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad, and is also at the head of the Schuylkill Canal. Although possessing many of the characteristics of a central town in an agricultural district, the heavy coal shipments on the canal, and the number of boatmen and railroad hands congregated there, presented subjects for examination, and afforded him opportunities to form acquaintance. Here he remained about four days, visiting the coal wharves, the company shops, and the surrounding country; also, while here, he availed himself of the opportunity to pay a visit of a few hours to Pottsville.

From Schuylkill Haven McKenna proceeded to Tre- mont, which place he made his headquarters for about a week. Here he had his first conversations relative to the " Molly Maguires." He pretended to believe an assertion of the existence of that organization, made in the Boston Pilot, to be without foundation. He was, however, assured by a railroader named Fitzgibbons and a tavern-keeper named Donohue, both of whom asserted that they were not members, that the society had an existence, that Mahanoy City was full of its members, and that the organization was bad in its character.

Tremont was in the coal region, and here he made his first acquaintance with miners and labarers. Pretending to be in search of work, from that point he.visited Newtown, Swatara, Middle Creek, Rausch's Creek, and Donaldson, at each place forming acquaintances and extending his information. He next passed to the western part of Schuyl- kill County, where he paid a visit of some four days to Tower City and the surrounding coal-mines. Here he heard the assertions repeated as to the existence of the "Molly Maguires," but the point of their strength was again alleged to be in the Mahanoy Valley, north of the Broad Mountain. From Tower City he made his way back to Tremont, and from there to Minersville, a town of about five thousand inhabitants, four miles to the west of Potts- ville, where he remained several days.

McKenna now left the coal region and went to Philadelphia to make a personal report to Superintendent Franklin, remaining in that city about two weeks. He had obtained some idea of the country, had made a number of acquaintances, and had satisfied himself that the " Molly Maguire" organization was no myth, but a terrible reality.

A course of policy was again marked out, and Pottsville selected as the proper place for McParlan to make his headquarters, that city being the centre of business in Schuyl- kill County, the county seat, where were located the offices of the railroad and mining companies, and as a consequence being frequented by all classes of the population and residents of all parts of the county.

Whilst the " Molly Maguires" had not yet attained sufcient hardihood openly to defy law and authority in Pottsville, it nevertheless had a number of members of the order among its citizens, and several of their places of resort in its very centre. Ifc was conceived that at this point a general acquaintance with the order throughout the region could be best formed, and from there a proper place for the basis of future operations be best selected.

It will be borne in mind that up to the time here referred to, and throughout the whole of his operations in the coal region, the system of daily reports was maintained. These reports, still in existence, and in the possession of the Pink- erton Agency, form a proud record of the industry, the ability, and the honesty of McParlan the detective.

Mcparlan, or McKenna, as he was now called, returned to the coal region in December, 1873, after his visit to Philadelphia, with the intention, as already stated, of making Pottsville his immediate headquarters. He obtained boarding with Mrs. O'Regan, East Norwegian Street, and at once earnestly entered upon the duties for which, he had been employed. He had become fully satisfied by this time that if every member of the A. O. H., or Ancient Order of Hibernians, was not a " Molly Maguire," it was a pretty well-established fact that every " Molly Maguire" was a member of the Ancient Order of Hibernians. This order, regularly chartered by the Legislature of Pennsylvania as a benevolent association, paraded its existence before the world, and made no special secret of the times and places of its meetings.

Before McParlan left Chicago, it had been determined upon by Allan Pinkerton that he was to join the organization, and to do so was a part of his instructions. Its members were known, and very many of them were soon his friends and associates. He was "a broth of a boy." He had, according to his own account, come to the coal region in search of a job, but, as he had just left a good place in Philadelphia, where he had saved some money, he was in no special hurry about the matter. He could, according to the style and taste of those of his nationality, sing a good song, dance a jig, and pass a rough joke. He was polite and attentive to the girls, could drink his share of whisky and pay for it, and was open for a row or shindy of any kind. Altogether, his manners were those of as rollicking, impulsive, generous, careless, unreasonable, quarrelsome, devil-may-care an Irishman as could be found in the four counties.

At an early day after locating in Pottsville, McKenna formed the friendship of Pat Dormer, a Molly Maguire, one of the commissioners of the county, and the keeper of a drinking-saloon and " Molly" resort, called the Sheridan House, on Centre Street. He quickly marked Dormer as a fit subject on whom to commence operations, and as a consequence, alone or in company, he was frequently loafing in front of the counter when Pat played the part of his own bar-tender. An opportunity for establishing confidence presented itself. McKenna's boon companions grew careless, and a toast, the words of which he remembered, was several times repeated and responded to in his presence. This was sufficient for the detective : watching an opportunity when he was the only guest, he treated the landlord, and, leaning mysteriously across the counter, tipped glasses, and in a significant manner repeated the words of the toast he had heard.

" What!" said Dormer, surprised, " are you one of them things?"

"That's what they call me," replied McKenna.

Dormer, without further inquiry, accepted the position, and confidence was established between the two. McKenna told him that he had been a member of the Ancient Order in Buffalo, where he owned some houses, but that owing to a crime which he had committed there he had left in a hurry, and was unable not only to collect his rents, but also, for fear of detection, to communicate with his society. He stated likewise that, whilst he had some money on hand, he would like to get a job of work, and to keep up his connection with the organization. The story excited Dormer's sympathy. He said that Michael Law- ler, of the Shenandoah Division, was a personal friend of his, and that he had no doubt that Lawler would, on his recommendation, aid McKenna in getting a job at Shenandoah.

Although Dormer had fallen so readily into the snare, McKenna's path to knowledge was not always strewn with roses. Dormer, a night or two after the interview just referred to, introduced him to Michael Cooney as a member of the order. Cooney required too much proof. McKenna's stock of knowledge was soon exhausted, and he floundered. Cooney became indignant. McKenna, to get out of the scrape, assumed intoxication, called for drinks all around, apparently took a very big drink himself, reeled, and fell over on the floor, where he lay feigning sleep.

Cooney still continued indignant, abused McKenna, and said that he had a notion to kick him on the head.

Dormer remonstrated. "The fellow is all right," he said ; " he is a good fellow, and belongs to the order ; he is a little intoxicated now, but when he gets sober he will be able to explain it all to you."

" I don't believe it," replied Cooney ; "and I wouldn't believe him unless he brought a card from his body- master."

The situation was not pleasant; McKenna had made a narrow escape from getting a severe bruising ; but he had gained two additional items of information, namely, that cards were issued, and that the officer issuing them was the body-master.

Several weeks after this occurrence McKenna met Michael Lawler, who was then the body-master of the Shenandoah

Division, at the Sheridan House; they were introduced, and a strong recommendation of McKenna was privately given Lawler by Dormer. McKenna did his utmost to impress his new acquaintance favorably, and succeeded. Arrangements were then made for him to visit Shenandoah with a prospect of obtaining work.

Prior to this time the detective had been extending his acquaintanceship throughout the coal region. His usual course was to stop at some hotel or tavern frequented by workingmen, or to go to some boarding-house suitable for the purpose he had in view. He stopped about a week in St. Clair (three miles from Pottsville); then, crossing the Broad Mountain, he remained a few days at Girardville ; from thence he journeyed to Ashland, which place he made his residence a sufficient length of time to enable him to increase his acquaintance and enlarge his knowledge of the coal region.

After his return to Pottsville, his circle of friends not only increased, but, owing to the spread of the impression that he had been formerly connected with the order, he was enabled to gain a more comprehensive view of its extent and power. His reckless, daring manners, together with an impression that he was himself creating of an utter disregard of all laws, human and divine, induced an unusual degree of confidence to be placed in him. He still kept up the fiction that he was in search of work, except to some friends, to whom he threw out vague intimations of his being a fugitive from justice. Avowedly in search of work, after remaining several weeks in Pottsville he visited Mahanoy City, where he made a short sojourn ; thence to Tamaqua, and from there again returned to 1'ottsville.

This was in the latter part of January, 1874. It was at this time that he made the acquaintance of Michael Lawler, or, as he was generally called, "Muff" Lawler, and agreed to go to Shenandoah to get work.

- He had now made up his mind, and had so reported to Mr. Franklin, that his true base of operations was in the Mahanoy Valley, north of the Broad Mountain. In the early part of February, 1874, he made his first visit to Shenandoah, on his way stopping over Sunday at Girard- ville, and Monday night at Colorado, a mining town in that neighborhood.

About the loth of February he arrived at Shenandoah, which place he thereafter made his home ; going back and forth from there, until his position as a police-officer was discovered and his career as an operating detective in the coal region had ended.

Shenandoah, a town of about nine thousand inhabitants, has sprung into existence within the last thirteen years. It lies a few miles north of Mahanoy City, and to the east of Ashland, and is built upon and surrounded by coal lands of almost fabulous value. The improvements are commensurate with the value of the lands, some of the largest collieries in the world being there in successful operation. Both the Philadelphia and Reading and the Lehigh Valley Railroads extend through the town, severally claiming a share of the rich deposit of coal. The population consists in the main of miners and laborers, although bankers, store-keepers, lawyers, doctors, editors, ministers, mechanics, and artisans of various kinds constitute an important element. The miners and laborers are, however, not only the controlling political element, but also the great source from which directly or indirectly the remainder of the population derives its support. As a consequence, the fluctuations of the coal trade, with their effect upon the rate of wages, are quickly felt by all classes of the community, and as a further consequence, not only the " Labor Union" but also the " Molly Maguire" organization was here openly defiant and advocated extreme measures, which, although not generally approved, were maintained against opposition.

In the latter part of February, 1874, McKenna obtained work at the Indian Ridge shaft, near Shenandoah, as a laborer. Here he remained a little over two weeks. Upon some trivial pretext he threw up this job, and engaged himself at the West Shenandoah colliery, where he remained about seven or eight days.

Some ludicrous stories are current as to McKenna's attempt to work in the coal-mines. He at first insisted upon working in full dress. Soon his coat was thrown aside, then his vest, and finally his shirt. He perspired and suffered under the unwonted labor, but nevertheless bore himself manfully. The work in the mines would soon have become as pleasant as any other manual labor, but he found no occasion to test that question fully. He quickly discovered that it was not as the skillful miner or industrious laborer that admission to or influence in the "Molly Maguire" organization was to be obtained.

He first boarded a week or two with his new friend, Michael or "Muff" Lawler, and was by him introduced to the boarding-house of Fenton Cooney, who was also a member of the order. A very short intercourse with his new associates convinced him that not only were the rights of person and of property and the laws of the land regarded with contempt by the "Molly" organization, but that he who had committed the greatest number and deadliest of crimes and had at the same time evaded the law was looked upon with admiration and respect. He also soon discovered that the man who supported himself or his family by a course of honest industry was held in far less esteem than the man who had acquired money by fraud or trick. The great corporations, the land-owners, and the coal operators were viewed as enemies and oppressors, who had no rights, and against whom any advantage, however unfair, might be taken. The positions of Township Auditor, Supervisor of Roads, Treasurer, School Director, and Tax Collector were eagerly sought for, and when obtained the duties were administered with a criminal disregard of the rights of the public. Fraudulent, altered, and forged orders were issued with perfect boldness, and corruption in the management of public trust prevailed to an extent that would have excited the admiration of the boldest operator in the Tweed ring in its palmiest days. It is no exaggeration to say that the frauds in many townships in the coal region were far greater, in proportion to the amount involved, than any charged to New York or Philadelphia jobs. Many of the " Molly" leaders were tavern- and saloon-keepers, and their houses headquarters for the turbulent and discontented, where were devised schemes by which the different coal operations could be run in the interest of the organization by means of superintendents and bosses of their selection and by them forced into position.

McKenna, upon finding that not only were his purposes not advanced, but that his movements were hampered and controlled by being confined as a miner and laborer, stopped work about the loth of March, 1874. He had now gained sufficient insight into the workings of the order to be enabled to state boldly that he was a member. He gave up the story of having accumulated money in Philadelphia, and began, to those confidential friends who under no circumstances can keep a secret, to tell of criminal acts which excited even their admiration. He had two explanations for his present means of support: one was that he was in receipt of a pension from the United States government, obtained fraudulently, and the other that he was "shoving the queer," in other words, passing counterfeit money.

To "Muff" Lawler he told, with more detail, the story he had already related to Pat Dormer, in Pottsville, relative to his Buffalo adventures. According to his account he had worked at a grain-elevator there (describing one that had no existence), and had quarreled with and killed a man under circumstances of peculiar atrocity, but assigned reasons that rendered him perfectly justifiable from the " Molly" stand-point. He suggested that as writing to Buffalo to obtain a card from the body-master there might lead to his detection and arrest, it would be better that he should be initiated over again and become an active member of the Shenandoah Division, of which he (Lawler) was body-master. The reasons given were satisfactory, and accordingly, on the 14th of April, 1874, the ceremony of initiation was gone through with at Lawler's house by reading to him an obligation called the "test," which he kissed in token of secrecy. He was now a full-fledged member of a society known throughout the coal regions, the Ancient Order of Hibernians, but among themselves recognized as the dreaded "Molly Maguires." He found the society acting avowedly under an act of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, approved March 10, 1871; and that its motto was "Friendship, Unity, and True Christian Charity." He found, further, that in its written constitution and bylaws were embodied the purest sentiments of morality and benevolence, not only as between the members, but as to all the world besides. But he also found that the written principles for the governance of the order were but a thin cloak to cover their real purposes in the perpetration and concealment of crime. Whilst there was no pretense at carrying out the avowed object of the society as a benevolent association, it was not every new and young member that was fully trusted : education was sometimes necessary before entering into full communion. The chief county officer, called the County Delegate, was alone deemed worthy of being made cognizant of all transactions; whilst even in a lodge or division the chief officer, called the Body-master, and those immediately concerned, were some

times, although not always, alone aware of a contemplated or perpetrated outrage. The members of one division could only under special circumstances be admitted to the deliberations of other lodges or chapters of the order; and as a consequence McKenna found that he had advanced but one step towards the object he had in view. He found that to attain his ends he would have to out-herod Herod or out-"Molly" a "Molly."

The character he had first assumed he intensified : he became loud, brawling, and boastful of crimes of all grades, from petty larceny to murder. He was ready to drink, sing, dance, court a girl, or fight. He boasted of the great benefit that he had been to the order, and was ever ready to pretend sympathy with the perpetrators of a crime, after its commission, which he had been unable to prevent and the full details of which he was anxious to discover. By reason of the merit he claimed to himself he succeeded in being elected secretary of his division, whereby he obtained a seat in the county conventions; and he had ambition for still higher preferment. In every hole and corner of the coal-region portions of Schuylkill, Northumberland, and Carbon Counties (with an occasional visit to Luzerne) Jimmy McKenna could at different times be found among the order, the loudest talker and apparently the biggest "Molly" of them all. But it is simple justice to James McParlan to state that this was only in appearance: with all his show of devotion to the order he never asked a man to join it, never by word or deed suggested or encouraged a crime. To this he has testified in trials both in Carbon and Schuylkill Counties. In Carbon County a desperate effort was made to prove the contrary, not only without success, but with a signal failure that recoiled upon the prisoner. The ill success there proved a warning to the defense in subsequent cases in Schuylkill Count}, and the effort to prove him in any respect an accomplice has been entirely abandoned.

It may be in place to mention at this point that the hardships endured by McParlan, in combination with the bad whisky he was compelled to swallow, resulted in a most singular effect upon his personal appearance during the latter part of his residence at Shenandoah. All of the hair fell off his head ; he lost his eyebrows, and his eyesight became impaired. Seeing him with a slouch hat on a bald pate, with green spectacles, rough shirt, and an old linen coat, swaggering along the streets, the last idea likely to present itself was that through his exertions a new era of peace, of law, and of order was about to dawn on the anthracite coal-fields.


December 13.—John Taylor, inside foreman at Richardson colliery, received a threatening notice to leave. See notice marked "A." George Rose, watchman at Indian Ridge, warned by two strangers not to go down the shaft of the colliery to grease the pumps, as in their opinion it was not his duty, but that of the fireman.
December 28.—Communication marked " I" was received by Mr. J. II. Olhausen, superintendent Mahanoy and Shamokin branch.
January.—Three tunnel contractors at Preston No. 2 colliery, John Finigan, Samuel Davies, William Williams, were notified to cease driving a tunnel, or submit to a fine of fifty dollars each, imposed by the Miners' and Laborers' Benevolent Association.
February 14.—About four o'clock in the morning, the shaft.frame at the West Norwegian shaft was destroyed by fire, the work of an incendiary.
February 24.—A mysterious fire occurred at the East shaft about nine o'clock at night, originating in the fan-house, where there was kept a

limited quantity of giant powder; ttlere being no fire near at hand at the time, no cause can be given for the fire other than that of incendiarism.
February 26.—Burning of giant powder at the Norwegian shaft; supposed to have been the work of an incendiary.
February 28.—House burned down by parties unknown, at Richardson colliery.
March 19.—J. Showerley, watchman at Ellsworth colliery, beaten and his revolver taken from him.
March 19.—Communication marked " III." was received by Mr. Olhausen.
March 20.—Watchman at Mine Hill Gap colliery beaten and tied with a rope; watch stolen.
March 25.—Train-employees of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company quartered at Ashland were molested by parties of men. These persons endeavored by threats and persuasion to intimidate the men and induce them to leave the service of the company.
March 25.—Telegraph-office at Locust Summit destroyed by an incendiary.
March 25.—Thirty-two cars loaded with coal dumped on track at Locust Gap, and six at Excelsior.
March 25.—A train of one hundred loaded cars were started down the grade and run off the track on Excelsior branch. Eight of the cars were badly broken in consequence. Damage, three hundred dollars. A few men at Palo Alto renounce the M. & W. B. A.
March 26.—Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company engine No. 288 ran off the track at Mine Hill crossing.
March 26.—Unknown parties dumped twenty-nine loaded coal-cars on siding at Locust Gap Junction.
March 26.—Six loaded coal-cars dumped by unknown parties at Enterprise siding.
March 27.—Train-hands on Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company's train stoned at Locust Gap. A number of men sent from Reading were met on their arrival at Gordon by a party of persons and persuaded not to go to work.
March 28.—Warehouse Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company at Mount Carmel broken open, and three barrels flour, six hundred pounds fish, and one barrel butter stolen. Tool-house broken open and tools stolen.
March 29.—A large number of persons congregated at and near Locust Gap and stoned the crews of passing coal-trains.
March 30.—Switch turned wrong and spiked at Shenandoah Junction ; mixed train engine off the track in consequence.
March 30.—Tool-house No. 5 broken open and tools stolen. Notice left there addressed to Daniel Yost, boss of section. New men were threatened, and left, saying they were afraid to work.
March 31.—House-car burned and totally destroyed on siding at Excelsior. Loss, six hundred dollars.
March 31.—A party of men boarded a coal-train between Locust Gap and Alaska stations, drove off the engineer and crew, damaged the engine, and blocked the road with stones.
March 31.—Parade of miners and railroad-men at Gordon. A large number of miners from Heckscherville on way to Gordon to participate took possession of coal-trains, and on arrival at head of plane compelled the plane-hands to run them down to Gordon. The men employed at the planes were also notified to quit work or abide the consequences. The strikers stated that after the parade they would go through the shops and compel all the men to quit work; which no doubt would have been carried into effect had it not been for an accident which occurred, resulting from the premature discharge of a cannon which the strikers were using to fire a salute, and by which three men were injured, one of them fatally. Track barricaded near Locust Gap with stones and railroad.sills, train-men stoned and shot at by parties with muskets and other fire-arms. The mob took possession of engine No. 260, a revolver pointed at the head of the engineer, Hiram Trout, and told to clear out or they would blow his brains out. Engine No. 260 was left in the hands of the mob ; three engines following, having been warned of the trouble ahead, returned with their trains to Alaska. They were, however, together with train No. 260, subsequently brought safely to Gordon. Damage sustained by engine No. 260 at the hands of the mob was seventy-five dollars. A large and excited mob awaited the arrival of the train-men at their boarding-house in Ashland, and this, together with the previous occurrences of the day, rendered it necessary to withdraw the men from the region until other arrangements could be made.
March —.—Indian Ridge and Plank Ridge collieries. Threats made by strange men at two different times to burn breakers of the company if work was not soon started. Governor Hartranft consulted.
April I.—No movement of coal trade to-day. Company's property guarded by police force. Sheriff Werner, of Schuylkill County, applied to for protection.
April I.—Threatening notices posted at Colket & Newkirk collieries. See notice marked " B."
April I.—Repairs-men Thomas Catalow, Henry Fulke, and Philip Blake, on Preston branch, Mahanoy and Shamokin Railroad, threatened with violence if they did not quit work.
April 2.—Switch-lock broken and switch misplaced near Mahanoy City, throwing freight-train off track and engine and portion of train down the bank.
April 2.—Engine No. 237, on freight-train No. II, was run over an embankment at Elmwood colliery, a switch having been misplaced by some unknown person. Damage, one hundred and ten dollars. Sheriff Werner distributed his proclamation through the riotous region. Governor Hartranft also issued his proclamation.
April 2.—A large party of men and boys boarded a freight-train at Mahanoy City in defiance of the crew. They were driven off by aid of Sheriff Weaver and police force.
April 2.—An attempt made to burn the office of the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad Company at Tuscarora.
April 2.—John Stephens, a brakeman, living at Mahanoy Plane, shot at and stoned for refusing to unite with the strikers. The sheriff of Northumberland promised to be at Locust Gap next morning. No movement of the coal trade.
April 3.—Twelve empty coal-cars run off the track by unknown persons at Hillside colliery. Damage, twenty-five dollars.
April 3.—Two freight-cars run off the track at Ellangowan colliery by unknown party. Damage, two thousand and eighteen dollars.
April 6.—Tool-house at Locust Gap thrown into the creek.
April 7.—A piece of iron was found wedged in a frog on the main track east of Mahanoy Plane. It was discovered in time to prevent damage.
April 7.—A loaded car at Burnside colliery siding was started down the grade by parties unknown.
April 7.—A pistol notice was fastened to blacksmith-shop at Newkirk colliery. See notice " C."
April 8.—Attempt made to run loaded cars down the grade at Burn- side colliery.
April 12.—A car started on Heckscher branch, near Shenandoah, running down main line of Shenandoah branch about the time the passenger-train from Mahanoy Plane to Shenandoah was due.
April 12.—Switch and two caution-boards torn out at Wadesville, Mount Carbon Railroad.
April 12.—A half-drift wagon-wheel placed between two sills on the track at Horseshoe curve, Mine Hill Railroad.
April 15.—Switch-lock broken at Glendower, Mine Hill Railroad. April 17.—Block of houses at Bast colliery burned by parties unknown.
April 18.—Two mules stolen from stable of the West Shenandoah colliery found the next day near Conner's mines.
April 21.—Men about starting to work in Greenback colliery deterred by threats and abusive language.
April 19.—Tool-house No. 6, above Landingville, was broken into, tools taken out and thrown down the bank, and the hand-truck at tool- house was disposed of in the same way. William Timmins, Benjamin Gough, Joseph Gough, West Shenandoah colliery, were intimidated and stopped from working by a party of men, and again on May 13 were told by them that they would be reported to the M. £ L. I). A. and be fined fifty dollars.
April 22.—Hose of water columns at Mahanoy Plane, Gordon, and Excelsior cut.
April 22.—Two gondola-cars, loaded with ties at Excelsior, set on fire.
April 22.—Switch at Enterprise Junction set wrong and rails blocked; obstruction removed before damage resulted.
April 22.—Special policeman Doolan, while in discharge of duty on train, attacked by five men, thrown from the train, and severely beaten.
April 23.—Two railroad employees, Frank Backman and Owen Lawrence, having resigned their connection with their Union and agreed to go to work, their houses were visited by strikers, shots fired, and threatening language used to stop them from working.
April 28.—House of Christian Calleary, miner, at Bast colliery, stoned, windows broken, and damage done to furniture.
April 29.—Freight depot at Mount Carmel broken into, and provisions stolen.
April 29.—Three pistol notices posted at North Franklin collieries, where men were working at reduced wages. See " D," " E," "G."
At different times during April, the following men, working at the North Franklin collieries, were subjected to abuse, and their houses stoned and furniture damaged by strikers: Peter Hoffman, abusive language used and windows of house broken; Henry Lagerman, Sr., windows broken; Henry Lagerman, Jr., abused; Peter Strasser, windows broken; David Strasser, windows broken; Henry Rhoads, abused for working; Eliza D. Jones saw and heard parties planning to burn the breaker.
May i.—Freight-car at Locust Gap broken open, and flour and feed stolen to the amount of thirty-five dollars.
May 2.—The houses of men at Gordon, who had left the Miners' and Workingmen's Benevolent Association and gone to work, were visited at night by parties, threats made, and shots fired.
May 3.—Freight-cars started from siding at Mahanoy City by some persons unknown, and run off the track at main road switch.
May 3.—Obstructions placed on track below Girardville.
May 3.—Engine "Gem" was stoned while passing through Girardville at about nine P.M.
May 4.—Ben Franklin colliery burned; the work of an incendiary.
May 4.—A watchman and two other men at Helfenstein colliery driven off by an armed party.
May 4.—Watchman at Locust Gap beaten and watch stolen; watch returned.
May 5.—Oil-house at Locust Summit, used as a temporary telegraph- office, burned.
May 5.—Stable at Locust Spring colliery robbed of thirty bushels of corn and oats.
May 5.—Heavy wire rope at Gordon Plane No. I cut. Loss about five hundred dollars. Telegraph-office at Locust Summit again destroyed by fire. Loss, two hundred and fifty dollars.
May 6.—Attempt made to destroy the trestles at Locust Gap by boring holes in the timbers and charging them with dualin. George Keich and Wenscle, working at Newkirk colliery, were told that it was a pity they were not both killed, and if they were not careful they would be attacked on their way home.
May 7.—At Excelsior Summit, Locust Gap, and Garretson's, the hose was cut from the water columns and tanks by unknown persons.
May 9.—Breaker of Enterprise colliery destroyed by fire; supposed to be the work of an incendiary.
May 10.—A mob of about two hundred and fifty armed men stopped the men who were about starting to work at Hickory Ridge colliery, maltreating the mine boss. Some party drove off the workmen at the Lancaster colliery. An incendiary notice served on a man at a Mount Carmel colliery. (See notice marked " F.") Charles Shaffstal, West Brookside colliery, threatened and abused with bad language at Tower City for working.
May ii.—Assistant foreman Henry Lloyd, at Beechwoocl colliery, badly beaten by strange men.
May 13.—Stones, logs, etc., placed on track between Mahanoy City and St. Nicholas.
May 14.—Michael LafTy, a workman at Beechwood colliery, fired at on his return home from work.
May 18.—John Veith, district superintendent at Locust Gap, house stoned and window broken.
May 19.—Signal tower at Mahanoy Plane, east of Bear Ridge colliery No. 2, burned at four o'clock A.M.
May 19.—Ticket- and telegraph-office at Excelsior station burned at about two A.M.
No date.—George Woart worked at East Franklin colliery, but was so abused by being called blackleg and other names that he was obliged to stop work and move his family to Tremont.
May 20.—A party of about twenty strikers attacked men working at Newkirk colliery. Two of the workmen wounded.
May 25.—Carpenter-shop at Palo Alto broken into, and a lot of tools to the value of thirty-five dollars stolen. Railroad iron and sills were placed upon the track at two points between Excelsior and Shamokin, by some unknown person, supposed with the intention of throwing passenger-train from the track. The obstructions were removed by the engine attached to passenger-train without damage.
June 2.—Obstructions were placed upon track on Shenandoah brancli by some persons unknown, with the intention of throwing passenger-train from the track. The obstructions were discovered and removed before arrival of the train.
June 3.—Engine " Gem," conveying Mr. J. H. Olhausen, superintendent, was fired at when near Mahanoy City by some persons unknown. No injury sustained.
June 3.—In the morning about seven o'clock, a large body of men, estimated to be from five hundred to one thousand in number, from Hazle- ton and vicinity, made their appearance in the neighborhood of Mahanoy City and stopped (he men working the North Mahanoy, Primrose, Jones, Ward & Oliver's, Beaver Run, and Hartford collieries. About twelve o'clock a mob of men from Shenandoah and other localities in this region, numbering about twelve hundred, marched through Mahanoy City. Their first act was to demand the release from the lock-up of a man who had been arrested in the morning by the chief burgess; this they effected by paying the fine. At two o'clock several hundred of the mob gathered at the colliery worked by King, Tyler & Co., and compelled their men to quit work. Sheriff Werner ordered the rioters to disperse, and was reading the riot act, when he and his posse were fired upon by the rioters. Two policemen of the Mahanoy City force were slightly wounded. After this attack, the mob marched to St. Nicholas colliery and dispersed. Governor Hartranft, having been called upon, ordered companies of troops to Mahanoy City and Shen- andoah to protect lives and property. On the morning of same day (June 3) a large body of men gathered about the West Shenandoah colliery, threatening to stop the men working there, but were prevented from making an attack by the force of armed police under Joseph Heisler. An attempt was made to throw the night passenger-train to Shenandoah from the track, by obstructing the road with stones, but the attempt was discovered in time to prevent an accident. A party of about thirty men, towards evening, while still daylight, went to the colliery worked by William Schwenk, near Mount Carmel, and deliberately fired the breaker, standing around until it was consumed. The colliery had worked since June I at reduced wages.
June 4.—Just before daylight, a body of men fired upon the police guarding the Centennial colliery, near Shenandoah, but, their fire being returned with effect, they dispersed without further attempt. A party of men left St. Clair in the morning, going in the direction of New Castle, stopped the men working for Joseph Denning screening coal- banks, also the men working at Ellsworth colliery. In the afternoon a party visited Mine Hill Gap and Beechwood collieries, but did nothing aggressive.
June 8.—Some of the men going to work at the Locust Run colliery were driven back by a mob. The same day the party molested the platform-men at Locust Run colliery and drove two men home.
June 9.—One of the workmen at Eagle Hill colliery attacked by two discharged men.
June 12.—At about half-past three o'clock P.M., Robert Gilgore and James O'Leary, contractors at the Oakdale colliery, left the mines to return to Forestville, their residence. As they were crossing the mountain lying between Oakdale and Forestville, they were fired upon from the bushes by three men armed with shot-guns. O'Leary was shot in the arm in three places; Gilgore received a great number of shot in his arms, hands, and lower limbs. The persons who made the attack were unknown to Gilgore and O'Leary.
June 28.—About five o'clock in the morning, William Thomas was attacked in the stable of the Shoemaker colliery, near Mahanoy City, by seven strange men, firing at him several times, striking him in three places, — in the neck, leg, and about the front of the body. During the firing a horse was killed, and a mule was shot in the leg. Thomas's injuries were not dangerous. John Blair, engineer, and Thomas Chapman, stable boss, were in the stable at the time.
July 4.— At the Centralia colliery, the night engineer of pumping- engine was fired upon by two men from door of engine-house, but was not injured. The two former engineers, James McBraerty and Patrick Devine, had struck against a reduction of wages, and the man fired at had taken one of their places.
July 6. — About half-past two o'clock in the morning, police officer Frank Yost, of the Tamaqua police, was shot by two men in Tamaqua. He live'd until about ten o'clock that morning. Officer McCarron, who was standing across the street, fired at the men, but hit neither of them. At the time Yost was shot, he was on a ladder, at a lamp-post, turning off the gas. The night was very dark.
July 15. — Another attempt was made to assassinate William Thomas. He had just got into a passenger-car at the Lehigh Valley Railroad depot, at Mahanoy City, for the purpose of going home to Shoemaker's colliery, when he noticed several rough-looking men watching him. Immediately surmising their object, he started to go out of the car, the train just leaving the depot, and as he jumped from the car a shot was fired at him from the platform, but without effect. This party were also strangers.
Mr. John Taylor — Please leave Glen Carbon, or if you dont you will suffer; by order of the B. S. H. We will give you one week to go but if you are alive on next Saturday you will die: Remember and
(No signature.)
Now men i have warented ye before and i willnt warind you nomor — but i will gwrintee yo the will be the report of the revolver.


Notice is here given to you men the first and the last Notice that you will get for no man to go Down this slope After to Night if yo Do you Can Bring your Coffion Along With you for By the internal Crist We mean What this Notice says you Drift man stop at home and Cut no more Coal let him go and get Coal himself I Dont mean Engineer or firemans let them mine there one Work now men (he Next Notice you Will get I Dont mean to Do it with my Pen I Will Do it With that there Rolver I Don't Want no more Black legs at this Col- lary.
(No signature.)
1 I

B £
Notice you have Caried this as far as you can By cheating thy men you three Bosses Be Carefull if the Above dont Be your home in a short Time.
From a Stranger he nowes you
Take notice Aneny Black Leg that will Take Aney Eunnion man Plac will have A hard Road to travel you will Rot in this shape if you
to Escape this home \^O^A~ tW~~] Coal
By a stranger
If Thomas Martin Dont Stop we will burn down his Breaker.
(No signature.)
Any blackleg that takes a Union Mans job while He is standing for His Rights will have a hard Road to travel and if He dont he will have to Suffer the consequences

Beacher and Tilton
Any man Starting to Work on the rail road now going to begin under the basis will have to Stand the consequnces. So black legs to notice.

M. M. N.

Black Legs Take Notice—
that you are in dang er of your Life by working in the mines without the Consent of the union men of Swatara Branch 14 Dis
at Middle Crick mines.
Frackville Dec. 28, 1874 J. H. OLHAUSEN Supt Dear Sir
At a special meeting of Branch No. 3 of the
M. W. B. Ass. Members of the Branch comprising the whole working force of the Road Plane and Level, that they have decided to quit work at 6 o'clock P. M. New Year eve for to attend their first Annual Ball. Hoping that you will arrange accordingly with this committee who will present you. with this copy
I remain Yours truly
W. F. Payne Prest
Chas Hartsog Secty
Gordon Feb 9, 1875.
The employees of gordon members of the M. W. B. A. of gordon do petition officers of the M. H. M. S. divission to grant us the privil- lege of going to work at 7 o'clock A. M. but no later than seven but are willing to go to work before seven if the officers want us to do so 2nd that when engine or crew goes out at 7 o'clock A. M. and conies in at 6 o'clock P. M. that they receive a day for it the same as they get on other parts of the divission 3nd when an engine with a regular crew is sent to work on another part of this divission the crew belongs to said engine to go along with her for it has been a practice when an Engine was wanted at Shamokin and other parts of the divission the engine was sent and the regular crew of said engine had to lay off the employees at gordon do ask as a favor the officers of this divission to have those matters settled. we remain
Respectfully your Committe.
P. H. Nolan T. J. Smith
C. A. Miller C. S. Wilson
Moh Plane Mar. 19 1875
J. H. Olhausen Supt
The following resolution were passed by Branch No. 3. of M. & W. B. Ass. That all Branches of Industry cease work to-morrow morning Sat. Mar 20 | 75 and will not work till such members as were des- charged are reinstated
By order of the Branch
Chas Hartsog
(Notice found posted at Locust Summit, March 31, 1875.)
Mr. Black-legs if you dont leave in 2 days time you meet your doom their will Bee an open war
(Notice found in yard of D. Patchen, Engineer, Cressona.)
from the gap Daniel Patch
remember you will be running in this coal region at night you took an nothermans engin we will give you fair warning in time and some more. V.L. M. M. H. S. T.

we hear notify you to leave th Road for you took a nother man chop take a warning to Save your live
to Yost
(From the Miners' Journal, March 30, 1867.)
As considerable attention is now paid by the press abroad to the terrible prevalence of crime in Schuylkill County and the insecurity of life and property, and as legislation is asked on this important matter, we publish below the murders known to have been committed in this county from January I, 1863, to this date. The list is a startling record.
January 2.—James Bergen, killed by shooting, Coal Castle.
March 3.—Mary Cochlin, killed by ill-treatment from her husband, Pottsville.
April 6.—Ellen Shay, killed by her husband, Timothy Shay, St. Clair-
April 8.—Joseph Riland, killed by Felix Cilley, I'ottsville.
April 26.—Patrick Gillon, killed by A. Leary, by stabbing, Norwegian Township.
August 15.—Daniel Eckerly, killed by James Burk, by stabbing, Ashland.
August 23.—Gilmore, killed by cause unknown, Fottsville.
August 30.—John W. W. Noble, killed by shooting with a pistol, Pottsville.
September 25.—Charles Mendham, killed by shooting, Pottsville.
October 17.—Patrick J. Hassey, killed by shooting, St. Clair.
November 17.—Margaret Brown, killed by kicks and blows, Norwegian Township.
November 2.—Man unknown, killed by cause unknown, Tremont Township.
November 13.—David Davis, killed by cause unknown, Mount Laffce. 1864.
January 12.—Patrick Ormsby, killed by pistol-shot, Mahanoy Township.
February 13.—Hiram Freher, killed by beating, Tremont Township.
February 27.—John Stinson, killed by stabbing, Blythe Township.
February 27.—James Shiels, killed by Hugh Curran, by stabbing, Blythe Township.
March 17.—Mary Brennan, killed by cause unknown, Cass Township.
April it.—Michael Curren, killed by John Britt, by shooting, Mine Hill Gap.
August 14.—Alice Devlan, killed by cause unknown, Cass Township.
August 21.—Unknown man killed by being mutilated, Mahanoy Township.
August 29.—Elizabeth O'Brien, killed by cause unknown, Cass Township.
September 11.—Robert Gardner, killed by clubs and axes by Dennis Aiken, John Donnelly, and a man unknown, Tremont Township.
October 10.—Michael Bemerick, killed by shooting, Minersville.
October n.—George W. Thompson, killed by violence, Tremont Township.
November 10.—Reese Jenkins, killed by pistol-shot, Mahanoy City.
November 20.—John Lawler, killed by Patrick Dolan, by stabbing, Foster Township.
January 3.—Edward McAtee, killed by Andrew Sorocco, blows and kicks, 1'ottsville.
January 18.—Michael Darken, killed by Michael Merrick, by shooting, St. Clair.
May 15.—William Williams, killed by John Barnet, by shooting, Blythe Township.
June 16.—William A. Boyle, killed by cause unknown, Pottsville.
April 3.—Enoch Evans, killed by Lewis Hurtig, by stabbing, Port Carbon.
April 30.—Patrick Clawes, killed by James Brennan, by pistol-shot, Shenandoah City.
April 30.—Michael Clawcs, killed by James Brennan and John De- laney, by pistol-shot, Shenandoah City.
July 2.—Thomas T- Hagerty, killed by Hugh Riddle, by stabbing, North Manheim Township.
August 14.—Nicholas Burkhard, killed by shooting, Pottsville.
August 25.—David Muir, killed by shooting, Reilly Township.
October 23.—John McMachy, killed by Patrick Delaney, by stabbing, Foster Township.
December 25.—Albert Pittz, killed by Thomas Griffith, by blow, Locust Dale.
January 10.—II. II. Dunne, killed by shooting, Norwegian Township.
January 19.—Mark Mala, killed by Thomas McAnalley, by shooting, Mahanoy Township.
April 2.—Patrick Dooling, shot and killed while attempting to murder Mr. Lewis, boss at Cole's colliery, Mahanoy Township.
July 4.—-"Lewis Williams, killed by Patrick Conners, by shooting, Llewellyn.
September 9.—George Theobold, killed by unknown person, by shooting, Mahanoy City.
February 9.—Michael Kain, killed by John Kain, by shooting, New Philadelphia.
February II.—John Donohoe, shot and killed while attacking North- all's house, Tuscarora.
March 15.—William H. Littlehales, killed by unknown men, by shooting, Cass Township.
March 22.—Patrick Stinson, killed by James Gallagher, by shooting, Mahanoy Township.
March 23.—Jacob Johnson, killed by Irish robber, by shooting, Union Township.
In all, fifty murders.
The murder of Mr. Littlehales and that of Mr. Johnson are too new to need comment.
In 1866 six murderous assaults, in which parties were seriously injured, and twenty-seven robberies recorded.
In 1867, to March 16, there were six murderous assaults and twenty- seven robberies, which we have been called upon to record, independent of the murders.
We have heard of several other murders and homicides, of which the particulars could not be obtained, the bodies having been removed secretly.
But few arrests of the murderers have been made.
TEST.—I do declare and promise, in the name and through the assistance of the A. O. II., that I will endeavor to keep inviolable all the secrets of this board or fraternal society from all but those I believe to l>e regular members and bound in the same fraternal ties.
1st. I declare and promise that I will support the present Constitution and By-Laws of the A. O. H. in preference to any other.
2d. That I will be true and steadfast to the brethren of this society, dedicated to Saint Patrick, the holy patron of Ireland, in all things lawful, and not otherwise, and that I will duly and regularly attend when my lawful superiors shall think proper, and conform myself to the regulations made by them, so long as those who are or may be in trust shall think proper.
3d. That I will not knowingly or willingly provoke, challenge, or fight any of my brothers. If a brother should be ill spoken, or otherwise treated unjustly, I will, according to circumstances, espouse his cause and give him the earliest information; aiding him with my sincere friendship when in distress.
4th. I also declare and promise that I will not admit or propose any person of bad or suspicious character into our honorable board knowing him to be such, and that I will endeavor to propagate friendship and brotherly love among such of my acquaintances as may be thought worthy of such confidence.
5th. That I will not at any meeting drink to intoxication, so as to endanger a disclosure of names, regulations, or members thereof.
6th. That in towns and counties I will be attached to our national interest according as opportunity may answer, and I will not wrong a brother to my knowledge.
7th. That I will not withdraw myself from this honorable board or join in society with persons of other denominations, not meaning
*The test, signs, and passwords here printed were discovered by the detectives and kindly placed at my disposal.—F. P. D.
trade societies, sailors, or soldiers. (This is laid on the floor, then picked up with the right hand and kissed.)
8th. I, , having made the above promises of my own
free will and accord, may our brethren assist me in my endeavors to fulfill the same and protect our friendship, and grant us to live in a state of grace, that we may show forth to the world that we are true and honorable Knights of St. Patrick! Amen.
Q. What is the best remedy for Irish grievances ?
A. An Irish Parliament in College Green.
Q. Will the Irish hold on for their rights ?
A. Yes; their rights they will fight for, and in justice must have.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. What is the meaning of all this ?
A. I am insulted.
SIGN.—Two first fingers of the right hand downwards on the apple of the throat.
Annver.—Two first fingers of the left hand to the side of the nose.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q, May the exiles so noble and brave still firm stand !
A, Yes; for tyrants we make tremble and hope our country to save.
PRIVATE MARK.—Dot on last o but one on card.
TOAST.— Q. What do you think of our nation?
A. The land question will cause great vexation.
Q. The tory landlords will oppose the bill.
A. Yes; Bishop McIIale will praise their master still.
WINTER NIGHT PASSWORDS.— Q, The winter nights are sharp and clear.
A. Yes; I hope heresy will soon disappear.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. Friend, do not be too fast.
A. I am too much aggravated.
SIGN.—The right forefinger and thumb to the point of the vest, between second and third button-holes.
Answer.—The left hand to the bottom of the sleeve.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.— Q. May all Irishmen in peace agree !
A. And in friendship bands our country free.
TOAST.—Q. What is the cause of this council at Rome ?
A. To show heresy the way to salvation and eternal freedom to gain.
Q. Will the Bishop at Rome Erin's friendship despise ?
A. No; it is the key to protection and true faith to keep alive.
WINTER NIGHT PASSWORDS.— Q. Dark nights are unpleasant. 32*
A. Yes, for strangers to travel.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. Friend, what is wrong with you?
A. I have reason to complain.
SIGN.—The right hand to the right eyebrow.
Answer.—The left hand to the left eyebrow.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.— Q. May Erin's sons for tenant rights all agiee!
A. Yes, from tithes and taxes we trust to be free.
TOAST.—Q. What do the powers of Europe intend to do?
A. To cripple the Church heresy has in view.
Q. If France, Spain, and Austria does firm stand, they will drive Victor Emanuel from the Pope's land ?
A. (Not given.)
WINTER NIGHT PASSWORDS.—Q. The clouds are heavy.
A. Yes ; a storm is approaching.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. What is the offense, sir?
A. It is my fault.
SIGN.—The forefinger of the right hand drawn down on the point of the nose.
Answer.—The forefinger of the left hand drawn over the apple of the throat.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May our race all with us unite !
A. Yes, like Derry and Belfast, to give us liberty and right.
PRIVATE MARK.—A pen-hole through the last c on card.
TOAST.—Q. What is your opinion of the present state of affairs in France ?
A. The Irish President will bold the reins of power.
Q. Will the French unite to avenge their wrongs?
A. Yes; with McMahon at their head they will gain what Napoleon lost.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. Who is in the wrong?
A. Not I, tried and true.
SIGN.—The thumb of the right hand under the chin.
Answer.—The left hand grasping the left collar of the coat.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May the hills and glens of Motherland once more resound to the tramp of the Irish clans!
A. Yes, and place the green victoriously above the red.
PRIVATE MARK.—A dot on the first m on the card.
TOAST.—Q. What do you think of England's bigotry?
A. Ireland has gained a grand victory. Mr. Butt has let the bigot Saxon sec that one noble bishop must be free.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. You are very stiff, sir.
A. I am always so.
SIGN.—Catch the left ear with the right hand.
Answer.—The left hand to the right ear.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May the sons of St. Patrick unite to be free!
A. Yes, and protect the Church against heresy.
PRIVATE MARK.—A dot on the first v on the card.
TAST.—Q. What is your opinion of the education question?
A. Gladstone is bound to give Ireland her demands.
Q. France is preparing?
A. Yes, and so is the Czar. Yes, and Ireland for her liberty when they proclaim war.
WINTER NIGHT PASSWORDS.—Q. The night is on the turn.
A. Yes, so is our enemies.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. You seem unpleasant, sir.
A. Yes, but I see I am astray.
SIGN.—The right hand to the bottom of the vest, and pull down by the waist.
Answer. The left hand on the left hip.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May all Catholic nations unite and agree!
A. Yes, and break down Bismark's plans and protect the Holy See.
PRIVATE MARK.—Make a stroke across the last a on card.
TOAST.— Q. What is your opinion of the coming election?
A. We hope rulers will carry the sway.
Q. Ireland must get what she wants.
A. Yes, with the united action of the clergy and people.
WINTER NIGHT PASSWORDS.—Q. There is a change on the nights.
A. The times are also changing.
QUARRELING TOAST.— Q. Be not afraid.
A. I will not disgrace my country.
SIGN.—Rub with the middle finger of the right hand inside the right side of shirt neck.
Answer. The middle f.nger of the left hand inside the left side of shirt-neck.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May the President of France and Don Carlos of Spain unite to restore the Pope back to his right again!
A. (Not given.)
PRIVATE MARK.—A dot on first c on card.
TOAST.—Q. What do you think of the Liberal cause?
A. They have made a great change in the country's laws.
Q. Yes, the tories' power is not so great.
A. Yes, we have a change in the power of state.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. For what do you quarrel, sir?
A. For want of patience.
SIGN.—The two first fingers of the right hand to the chin.
Answer.—The left hand to the left eyebrow.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.— Q. May our cause now be firm, for the day is at hand!
A. Yes, when tyrants may tremble and flee from our land.
PRIVATE MARK.—Pen-hole through last s on card.
TOAST.—Q. What is your opinion of the land bill ?
Gladstone holds our country in bondage still.
A. Yes, if we had honest men our cause to take
We by union could have a power in state.
QUARRELING TOAST.—Q. Why do you ruffle me, sir?
A. I am sorry for it.
SIGN.—The right hand to the lower lip, pulling it down.
Answer.—The left hand to the right elbow, with a rub.
BODY-MASTER'S TOAST.—Q. May our union be firm and true !
A. Yes, our cause has done great work, and still has more to do.
PRIVATE MARK.—Dot on first c on card.
(From the Shenandoah Herald, June 8, 1876.)
When affairs in this county were in a very different condition from what they are in to-day, the following letter was received by the editor of the Herald:
" DEAR SIR :" (The first few lines refer to a matter of business,—the printing of some Ancient Order of Hibernia charters,—upon which the writer wishes no remarks to be made.) " I am surprised at the zest displayed by you through the medium of the daily {Herald} on the situation of affairs in the county, and believe that the stand taken by you is unwarrantable. We are thoroughly aware that lawless acts have been committed during the past few months, but does the
facilitate a return to quietness and good feeling? I am deeply interested in this matter, for I am under the impression, which has been

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

Thank you for posting all this info. I am the granddaughter of a mine foreman from Locust Gap (late 1890s) and enjoyed this article